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      談談北宋的滅亡,以及靖康之恥

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      北宋是中國古代經濟文化最為繁榮的朝代,甚至超越了同時期的西歐。其中主要是因為北宋在政治方面非常開朗,重用文人志士,使得儒家得到了復興,科技發展也變得突飛猛進,而且北宋還是中國歷史上唯一一個不殺文官的朝代,由此可見當時的文官地位有多高。然而就是這么一個經濟高度繁華的朝代,卻僅僅享國167年就被金軍所滅,有很多人認為北宋的滅亡就是因為太過于崇文抑武,導致了軍力大不如當時的金軍和遼軍。不過小編還是以為北宋之所以會滅亡,更大的原因是當時腐敗的朝政以及昏庸的君主所導致的。

      政治的腐朽

      北宋元符三年(1100年),宋哲宗趙煦因病去世,年僅二十五歲,因膝下無子,于是就將羸弱的北宋傳給了自己的弟弟宋徽宗趙佶。宋徽宗即位初期也是積極的推行新政,決心整頓哥哥留下來的爛攤子,于是重用蔡京。結果蔡京是一個不堪大用的人,他利用宋徽宗對他的賞識無惡不作,在朝堂排除異己、私賣官爵,甚至是增加賦稅,搜刮民脂民膏,為自己囤積了大量的財產。而且宋徽宗后期也變得懈怠了起來,沉迷于聲色犬馬之中,他的愛好除了踢蹴鞠和寫字就是微服出巡逛青樓,所以宋徽宗也就成為了中國歷史上第一個被后人稱作青樓天子的帝王。而且他還酷愛花石綱(長相奇特的石頭),于是便在江浙一帶設置應奉局專門到全國各地搜尋奇花異石,全然不顧百姓的死活,只要能得到這些石頭,不惜毀屋破墻,焚田掘墓。為了保障花石綱的水上運輸安全,甚至是占用關系著國家民生的漕運,動用百萬役工,致使天下混亂,百姓民不聊生。為君者的奢侈無度,不查民情,直接導致全國各地不斷的有農民起義,雖然后期都被鎮壓,但是北宋朝廷絲毫沒有吸取教訓,反而變本加厲。

      聯金抗遼

      宣和二年(1120年),經過多次的接觸和協商后,宋、金兩國達成了思想一致,共同進攻遼國的戰略(史稱海上之盟)。北宋的目的是為了從遼國奪回被占百年的燕云十六州,而金國的想要的是擺脫遼國的統治并擴大自己的版圖。可笑的是,金人從戰爭開始就一路攻城略地,勢不可擋,直接把遼天祚帝給打跑了,遼國大臣耶律淳只能自行稱帝(史稱北遼)苦苦支撐著即將破滅的殘局。而宋軍此時剛剛鎮壓完起義的叛軍,正是信心滿滿的時候,結果剛上場就被大敗于金人的遼軍一頓爆錘,雖然最后付出了很大的代價還是取得了勝利,但是主導這次戰爭的依然還是金軍。

      戰爭結束以后金太宗完顏阿骨打看到宋軍如此羸弱不堪,在戰爭中也是屢次失利,對待北宋的態度逐漸變得傲慢了起來,在兩國談判原先商議好的交割事宜的時候,金人開始有了毀約的想法,拒絕還回燕云十六州。因為北宋在軍事方面完全硬不起來,也不敢威脅金軍,所以在談判過程中一點底氣都沒有,最后又經過多次的協商,宋朝允諾給金朝二十萬兩銀,三十萬匹絹給金,并納燕京代組錢一萬貫,完顏阿骨打這才愿意交出了燕云十六州中的六個州,并且在撤軍前將燕京城內的財寶和人口洗劫一空,只把一個空城交還給了宋朝。

       

      靖康之變

      事實證明北宋與金朝結盟滅遼的決策是錯誤的,雖然遼國長期占領了北宋的燕云十六州,但是自宋真宗與遼太后簽署了潭淵之盟后,兩國已經百余年來沒有發生過戰事,彼此互不相犯,說白了此時兩國都沒有消滅對方的能力。偏偏在這個時候北宋引狼入室,與女真族這頭餓狼一起聯手滅遼,俗話說狡兔死,走狗烹。等金朝收拾完了遼國緩過勁兒來,當然也不會放過北宋。況且此時宋軍也在多年的懈怠中變得不識干戈,備戰松弛,連剛剛戰敗的遼軍都打不過,更何況是勇猛的金軍。

      果然沒過多久,金軍就開始趁機攻打虛弱的北宋,并于靖康元年(1126年)冬季,打到了北宋的都城東京(開封) ,但是因為開封軍民的抗敵情緒高漲,光是要求參戰的人就達到三十萬之眾,所以金軍不敢貿然進城,于是就要求談判,后來宋欽宗親自到金營議降,并按照金人的意思下旨讓趕來勤王的各路軍隊停止向開封進發,并鎮壓自發組織起來抵抗金軍的民眾。宋欽宗的荒唐的決策可以說是把自己以及整個北宋軍民都變成了氈板上的肉,任人宰割。于是金軍進城后就開始大肆的搜刮財物,包括北宋朝廷內外的國庫都沒能逃過金人的洗劫。當時正值寒冬季節,大雪紛飛,被搶奪一空的開封人民光是餓死凍死的就不計其數,宋朝統治者的投降政策不但坑了自己,更是給開封人民帶來了滅頂之災。

       

      靖康二年(1127年)大獲全勝的金軍帶著搜刮而來的金銀珠寶和被俘虜的宋徽宗、宋欽宗二帝以及所有皇室宗親包括近臣、工匠等一萬四千余人北撤,北宋宣告滅亡,史稱靖康之變。至于被俘虜的皇室,大多都沒有逃過屈死的下場,據說宋徽宗的一眾女兒以及后宮嬪妃都被金人當做玩物,甚至有的被奸淫折磨致死,而宋徽宗本人也在被軟禁后的第八年里含著悔恨和哀怨而亡。

       

      靖康之變是中國歷史上的一大恥辱,首先從北宋統治者的腐敗到聯手金人滅遼再到后來的投降政策全部都表現了北宋政權當時的無能與軟弱,結果必然也是舉國上到皇親貴族,下到黎明百姓全都焚身火海的下場。在感慨的同時我們也要明白,北宋的滅亡以及近代的抗日戰爭都告訴我們一個道理,只有國家自身強大了,我們才能挺直腰桿,否則只能像氈板上的肉一樣,任人侮辱,任人宰割。

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